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High power prices drive some patients in Spain into poverty

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2023-01-18T08:22:33Z

Jose Maria Casais’s 2,700 euros-a-month income from a pension and incapacity benefits ought to leave him better off than most of his fellow Spaniards.

But Casais, a retired engineer living in Barcelona, says he is being forced to raid his savings every month after his energy bills soared because of his reliance on an oxygen machine to alleviate his chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

For the past two years, Casais has been plugged into the oxygen concentrator for up to 24 hours a day. His electricity bill has almost tripled since Russia invaded Ukraine in February, he says, triggering an energy crisis in Europe because of its dependence on Russian gas.
He’s part of a middle class in Spain being dragged into poverty by the crisis. Nearly 4% of Spanish households in the fourth income decile – a segment typically viewed as middle class – have spent more than half of their income on energy since the rise in prices last year, an Oxfam survey found.

Whereas before the energy crisis nearly half of households in Spain had the capacity to save, Oxfam estimates that now only three in 10 households can do so.

Casais spends between 300 euros and 400 euros a month on energy – about triple what he spent before the crisis – leaving little or nothing for other essentials after his other medical expenses, which include a live-in carer. By mid-month, he has to start drawing on his savings, he said.

“It limits everything else; leaves no option for other things,” Casais, a former engineer at the state-run rail company Renfe, told Reuters in his Barcelona apartment.

Casais’ oxygen concentrator pulls air through a compressor, removing nitrogen and filtering oxygen to deliver to the patient. Depending on how much difficulty Casais has breathing on a given day, he will be connected between 17 and 24 hours.

He is not alone. An estimated five million people in Spain suffer from COPD, said Dr. Sergi Pascual, pulmonology unit coordinator at the Hospital del Mar in Barcelona. It’s the third largest cause of death worldwide and the fourth in Spain, the Spanish Association for Patients with COPD (APEPOC) says.

Patients in other countries are also suffering. A survey of more than 3,600 people with lung conditions by the charity Asthma + Lung UK found that one in five Britons surveyed with asthma reported life-threatening attacks as they cut back on medicines, heating and food because of the soaring cost of living.

Sufferers of other maladies such as kidney failure dependent on electricity-guzzling machines to survive are also struggling, two medical groups representing kidney disease say.

Without his oxygen machine, Casais said he would have to be permanently hooked up to a machine in hospital, losing his independence and costing the state more.

COPD is “a chronic, irreversible disease,” Pascual said, “so these patients’ objective is to live a useful and full life and they therefore need the necessary funds”.

It’s not only oxygen machines that rack up bills. Pulmonary disease sufferers must carefully regulate their homes’ ambient temperature, which means relying on air conditioning in Spain’s searing summers and central heating in its brisk winters.

“If the weather suddenly changes from good to a rainy day you feel terrible,” Casais said. “The cold affects your breathing.”

Fernando Uceta, 61, who had a double lung transplant in August and also suffers from COPD, says he avoids air conditioning and relies on easier-to-monitor electric heaters to manage his costs.

“There’s an energy poverty that some call the invisible version, which is where people do what I do: put on less heating and not use air conditioning. Or people turn off their oxygen machine and don’t receive the amount they need,” Uceta said.

Many electricity-dependent Spaniards are facing some stark choices, said Nicole Hass, a spokesperson for APEPOC: “With this rise in electricity prices they have to decide between eating and breathing.”

APEPOC wants Spain’s local governments to subsidise energy bills for all COPD sufferers, regardless of their income.

Spain’s national health service covers the cost of oxygen but not of electricity, Hass said. “What use is the oxygen if we don’t have the electricity to plug in the machine?”

APEPOC wants Spain to emulate countries like Argentina, which in 2017 made electricity free for electricity-dependent individuals. In New Zealand, electricity retailers are obliged by law to provide discounts for so-called medically dependent consumers.

Health policy in Spain is determined by its 17 autonomous regions. An initiative last year by Catalan party Esquerra Republicana to include patients dependent on medical devices in a list of vulnerable consumers who receive help with their energy bills stalled in the national parliament.

In response to Reuters questions, Catalonia’s health ministry pointed to a protocol approved by the regional government in 2020 that guarantees no-one has their electricity cut off. The measure does not offer subsidies to help patients with high bills.

Casais has already altered his diet to cut costs. He now lives on one-euro packets of processed meats and tins of tuna. He’s now considering remortgaging his apartment to cover his medical and energy costs.

“They should give a direct discount on electricity bills to everyone who is electricity-dependent regardless of their income or where they live,” he said.

Related Galleries:

Jose Maria Casais, 69, who is suffering from flu, uses an oxygen nebuliser as he sits on a wheelchair inside his house, in Barcelona, Spain, December 22, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Jose Maria Casais, 69, takes a medication while suffering from flu as he uses a portable oxygen concentrator respiratory machine connected to electricity to breathe, in Barcelona, Spain, December 11, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Alvaro, 40, a caregiver, uses eyedrops for his client Jose Maria Casais, 69, as Casais uses a portable oxygen concentrator respiratory machine connected to electricity to breathe, in Casais’s bedroom in Barcelona, Spain, December 11, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Alvaro, 40, a caregiver, helps his client Jose Maria Casais, 69, get into his bed, in Barcelona, Spain December 21, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Jose Maria Casais, 69, sits in a wheelchair inside his house, next to his portable oxygen concentrator respiratory machine which is connected to electricity for up to 24 hours a day, in Barcelona, Spain, December 9, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Alvaro, 40, a caregiver, helps to dress his client Jose Maria Casais, 69, who uses a nasal cannula connected to a portable oxygen concentrator respiratory machine to breathe, in Casais’s house in Barcelona, Spain, December 14, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Alvaro, 40, a caregiver, pushes his client Jose Maria Casais, 69, on a wheelchair as they buy food at a supermarket, as Casais uses a portable oxygen concentrator backpack with a battery to breathe, in Barcelona, Spain, December 8, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Jose Maria Casais, 69, uses a portable oxygen concentrator backpack with a battery to breathe, while sitting on a wheelchair in a park next to his house in Barcelona, Spain, December 9, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Antonela, 11, the niece of Jose Maria Casais’s caregiver Alvaro, wishes a merry Christmas to Casais, 69, who uses a nasal cannula connected to a portable oxygen concentrator respiratory machine to breathe, while Casais sits in a wheelchair in his house in Barcelona, Spain, December 22, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

A photograph of Jose Maria Casais, then aged 35, alongside photographs of his mother, Teresa Naveira Varela, and brother, Emilio, are displayed in his living room, in Barcelona, Spain, December 9, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Jose Maria Casais, 69, who has the flu, rests in his bed before trying to sleep, as he uses a portable oxygen concentrator respiratory machine connected to electricity to breathe, in Barcelona, Spain, December 12, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Jose Maria Casais, 69, looks at a photo of himself (standing on the right) with friends at a party in Barcelona’s Gracia neighbourhood taken ahead of his compulsory military service in his late teens, as he uses a portable oxygen concentrator respiratory machine connected to electricity to breathe, in Barcelona, Spain, December 13, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Jose Maria Casais, 69, uses a device to turn the heating up during a bout of flu, as he sits on a wheelchair in his house in Barcelona, Spain, December 8, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

An imprint of a nasal cannula is seen on the face of Jose Maria Casais, 69, who uses a portable oxygen concentrator respiratory machine to breathe, while he is helped by his carer Alvaro, 40, to dress in his house in Barcelona, Spain, December 14, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Jose Maria Casais, 69, reacts as he reads messages of concern over his wellbeing in a WhatsApp group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, after he hadn’t been online for a few days while suffering from a bad case of flu, inside his house in Barcelona, Spain, December 14, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Alvaro, 40, a caregiver, and his client Jose Maria Casais, 69, talk while cooking in the kitchen, as Casais uses a nasal cannula connected to a portable oxygen concentrator respiratory machine to breathe, in Barcelona, Spain, December 14, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Herbert, 32, a caregiver, shaves his client Jose Maria Casais, 69, who uses a portable oxygen concentrator respiratory machine connected to electricity to breathe, in front of a picture of Casais’s parents on the wall, inside his house in Barcelona, Spain, January 4, 2023. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Alvaro, 40, a caregiver, pushes the wheelchair of his client Jose Maria Casais, 69, who is using a portable oxygen concentrator backpack with a battery to breathe, as they cross the road in Barcelona, Spain, December 9, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Jose Maria Casais, 69, uses a portable oxygen concentrator backpack with a battery to breathe as he sits at Barceloneta beach, in Barcelona, Spain, January 5, 2023. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Jose Maria Casais, 69, talks with bar worker Gloria while having coffee, as he uses a portable oxygen concentrator backpack with a battery to breathe, in a bar in Barcelona, Spain, December 14, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Alvaro, 40, a caregiver, pushes the wheelchair of his client Jose Maria Casais, 69, who uses a portable oxygen concentrator backpack with a battery to breathe, as he gives a sandwich to Enrique, who is a homeless, on a street near Casais’s house in Barcelona, Spain, December 14, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

A medical oxygen cylinder, for usage in case of a power outage, stands next to the wardrobe of Jose Maria Casais, 69, who uses a portable oxygen concentrator respiratory machine to breathe, in Barcelona, Spain, December 14, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Alvaro, 40, a caregiver, talks with doctors over the phone about his client Jose Maria Casais, 69, who has the flu and uses nasal cannula to connect to a portable oxygen concentrator respiratory machine to breathe, in Casais’s house in Barcelona, Spain, December 22, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Jose Maria Casais, 69, breathes using a portable oxygen concentrator respiratory machine, which is connected to electricity up to 24 hours a day, as he watches a TV news program about the cost of electricity in Europew while sitting on a wheelchair in his house in Barcelona, Spain, December 9, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Jose Maria Casais, 69, sits on his bed before sleeping, as he uses a nasal cannula connected to a portable oxygen concentrator respiratory machine to breathe, in Barcelona, Spain, December 11, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Jose Maria Casais, 69, uses an oxygen nebuliser in his bedroom in Barcelona, Spain, December 11, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Jose Maria Casais, 69, talks with the Spanish Association for Patients with COPD (APEPOC) spokesperson Nicole Hass over a video call, as he sits on a wheelchair in his house in Barcelona, Spain, January 5, 2023. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Jose Maria Casais, 69, uses a portable oxygen concentrator backpack with a battery to breathe, as he and his caregiver Alvaro, 40, travel by bus to his house in Barcelona, Spain, January 5, 2023. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Fernando Uceta, 61, who suffers from COPD, shows a picture of himself on his phone after he had a double lung transplant in August, in his house a week after leaving the hospital, in Barcelona, Spain, November 25, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

Fernando Uceta, 61, who suffers from COPD, uses a nebuliser to deliver antibiotics directly to his lungs, following a double lung transplant in August, at his house in Barcelona, Spain, November 25, 2022. REUTERS/Nacho Doce

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